## Calculating the Determinant

Today we’ll actually calculate the determinant representation of an element of for a finite-dimensional vector space . That is, what transformation does an element of the general linear group induce on the one-dimensional space of antisymmetric tensors of maximal degree?

First off, what will the determinant of a linear transformation *be*? It will be an invertible linear transformation from a one-dimensional vector space to itself. That is, if we have a basis (any single nonzero vector) for the one-dimensional space, the determinant can be described by an invertible matrix — a single nonzero field element. The action is just to multiply every vector by this field element. So all we have to do is find a vector in our space and see what the representation does to it.

But finding a vector is easy. We just pick a basis of — *any* basis of — and antisymmetrize a -tuple of basis elements. The obvious one to pick is . Then we have an antisymmetric tensor

Now, we could calculate this right away, but let’s not do that. What we’re really interested in is how a group element acts on this tensor

But remember that the actions of the symmetric and general linear groups commute

Where we’re not using the summation convention for the moment.

The next step is the tricky part. What we have is a product of sums, which we want to turn into a sum of products. We walk through the factors, picking one summand from each as we go along. That is, for every we pick some to get the term

And we can factor out all these constants to make our term look like

We want to sum up over all possible such terms. This is really just a big application of the distributive property — the linearity of tensor multiplication. At the end we have

But since antisymmetrization is linear we get

And here’s where the properties of the antisymmetrizer come in. First off, if for any two distinct indices and , then the antisymmetrization of the term will vanish. Thus our sum is really only over those

But now each term involves antisymmetrizing the same collection of basis vectors, but in different orders. So for each one we rearrange the tensorands at the possible cost of picking up a negative sign

And now the antisymmetrizer part has nothing to do with the summation over . We factor it out to find

So in the end we’ve multiplied our antisymmetric tensor by the factor

which is our determinant. For each permutation we take our matrix and walk down the rows. At the th row we multiply by the element in the th column, and we sum up these products over all .

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[...] Determinant of the Adjoint It will be useful to know what happens to the determinant of a transformation when we pass to its adjoint. Since the determinant doesn’t depend on any [...]

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[...] to as the Jacobian, or the Jacobian matrix. Since this matrix is square, we can calculate its determinant, which is also referred to as the Jacobian, or the Jacobian determinant. I’ll try to be clear [...]

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[...] in terms of a sum over permutations. And that, of course, is a matter of exterior algebra. The Unapologetic Mathematician has written on determinants, although I’m not sure he discussed the volume definition in [...]

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