The Unapologetic Mathematician

Mathematics for the interested outsider

Some Root Systems and Weyl Orbits

Today, I’d like to show you some examples of two-dimensional root systems, which illustrate a lot of what we talked about last week. I’ve worked them up in a Java application called Geogebra, but I don’t seem to be able to embed the resulting applets into a WordPress post. If someone knows how, I’d be glad to hear it.

Anyhow, in lieu of embedded applets, I’ll post the “.ggb” files, which you can take over to the Geogebra site and load up there. So, with no further ado, I present all four two-dimensional root systems:

Each one of these files illustrates the root system and its Weyl orbit. Each one has two simple roots, labelled \alpha and beta in blue. The rest of the roots are shown in black, and the fundamental domain is marked out by two rays perpendicular to \alpha and \beta, respectively.

An arbitrary blue vector \mu is shown, along with its reflected images making up the entire Weyl orbit. You can grab this vector and drag it around, watching how the orbit changes. No matter where you place \mu, notice that there is exactly one image in the fundamental domain, as we showed.

The first root system is reducible, but the other three are irreducible. For each of these, we can see that there is a unique maximal root. However, A_1\amalg A_1 doesn’t; both \alpha and beta are maximal.

We also see that the Weyl orbit of a root spans the plane in the irreducible cases. But, again, in A_1\amalg A_1 the Weyl orbits of \alpha and \beta only span their lines.

Finally, in each of the irreducible cases we see that there are at most two distinct root lengths. And, in each case, the unique maximal root is the long root within the fundamental domain.


February 15, 2010 - Posted by | Geometry, Root Systems


  1. […] the converse doesn’t necessarily hold. Look back at our two-dimensional examples; specifically, consider the and root systems. Even though we haven’t really constructed the […]

    Pingback by Transformations of Dynkin Diagrams « The Unapologetic Mathematician | March 5, 2010 | Reply

  2. […] of the G2 Root System We’ve actually already seen the root system, back when we saw a bunch of two-dimensional root system. But let’s examine […]

    Pingback by Construction of the G2 Root System « The Unapologetic Mathematician | March 8, 2010 | Reply

  3. The links to the .ggb-files seem to be broken. Would it be possible to upload them again? Thanks 🙂
    Nice blog by the way!

    Comment by Max | October 28, 2013 | Reply

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