The Unapologetic Mathematician

Mathematics for the interested outsider

More on tensor products and direct sums

We’ve defined the tensor product and the direct sum of two abelian groups. It turns out they interact very nicely.

One thing we need is another fact about the tensor product of abelian groups. If we take three abelian groups A, B, and C, we can form the tensor product A\otimes B, and then use that to make (A\otimes B)\otimes C. On the other hand, we could have started with B\otimes C and then built A\otimes(B\otimes C). If we look at the construction we used to show that tensor products actually exist we see that these two groups are not the same. However, they are isomorphic.

To see this, let’s make a bilinear function from (A\otimes B)\times C to A\otimes(B\otimes C). By our construction, any element of A\otimes B can be represented as a sum \sum\limits_i a_i\otimes b_i, so linearity says we just need to consider elements of the form a\otimes b. Define f(a\otimes b,c)=a\otimes(b\otimes c). This induces a unique linear function given by \bar{f}((a\otimes b)\otimes c)=a\otimes(b\otimes c) and extending to sums of such elements. Similarly we get a linear function \bar{f}^{-1}(a\otimes(b\otimes c))=(a\otimes b)\otimes c), so we have an isomorphism of abelian groups. We can thus (somewhat) unambiguously talk about “the” tensor product A\otimes B\otimes C.

Now let’s take a collection of abelian groups A_i with i running over an index set \mathcal{I}, and let B be any other abelian group. We want to consider the tensor product
\left(\bigoplus\limits_{i\in\mathcal{I}}A_i\right)\otimes B

Since the direct sum is a direct product of groups, it comes with projections \pi_k:\bigoplus_i A_i\rightarrow A_k. Since the free product is in general a subgroup of the direct sum (a proper subgroup when the index set is infinite), we also have injections \iota_k:A_k\rightarrow\bigoplus_i A_i coming from the free product. We can use these to build homomorphisms
\iota_i\otimes1_B:A_i\otimes B\rightarrow\left(\bigoplus\limits_{i\in\mathcal{I}}A_i\right)\otimes B
applying \iota_i to A_i and the identity to B. By the universal property of direct sums (the one it gets from free products of groups) this gives us a homomorphism
\alpha:\bigoplus\limits_{i\in\mathcal{I}}(A_i\otimes B)\rightarrow\left(\bigoplus\limits_{i\in\mathcal{I}}A_i\right)\otimes B

On the other hand, for each k we have a bilinear function sending (a,b) in \left(\bigoplus_i A_i\right)\times B to \pi_k(a)\otimes b in A_k\otimes B. By the universal properties of tensor products this gives a linear function \left(\bigoplus_i A_i\right)\otimes B\rightarrow A_k\otimes B. The universal property of direct sums (the one it gets from direct products of groups) gives us a linear function
\beta:\left(\bigoplus\limits_{i\in\mathcal{I}}A_i\right)\otimes B\rightarrow\bigoplus\limits_{i\in\mathcal{I}}(A_i\otimes B)

Now there’s a lot of juggling of functions and injections and projections here that I really don’t think is very illuminating. The upshot is that \alpha and \beta are inverses of each other, giving us an isomorphism of the two abelian groups. There’s nothing really special about the left side of the tensor product either. A similar result holds if the direct sum is the right tensorand. We can even put them together to get the really nice isomorphism:

\left(\bigoplus\limits_{i\in\mathcal{I}}A_i\right)\otimes\left(\bigoplus\limits_{j\in\mathcal{J}}B_j\right)\cong\bigoplus\limits_{(i,j)\in\mathcal{I}\times\mathcal{J}}(A_i\otimes B_j)


April 17, 2007 Posted by | Abelian Groups, Algebra, Group theory | 10 Comments